A Dictionary of the English Language
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Animal (noun)

View Scan · View Transcription · from page 133

View Scan · View Transcription · from page 133

A'nimal. n.s. [animal, Lat.]

  1. A living creature corporeal, distinct, on the one side, from pure spirit, on the other side, from mere matter.

    Animals are such beings, which, besides the power of growing, and producing their like, as plants and vegetables have, are endowed also with sensation and spontaneous motion. Mr. Ray gives two schemes of tables of them.

    Animals are either
    Sanguineous, that is, such as have blood, which breathe either by
    Lungs, having either
    Two ventricles in their heart, and those either
    Aquatick, as the whale kind,
    Terrestrial, as quadrupeds;
    Oviparous, as birds.
    But one ventricle in the heart, as frogs, tortoises, and serpents.
    Gills, as all sanguineous fishes, except the whale kind.
    Exsanguineous, or without blood, which may be divided into
    Greater, and those either,
    Terrestrial, as naked snails.
    Aquatick, as the poulp, cuttle-fish, &c.
    Covered with a tegument, either
      Crustaceous, as lobsters and crab-fish.
    Testaceous, either
        Univalve, as limpets;
    Bivalve, as oysters, muscles, cockles;
    Turbinate, as periwinkles, snails, &c.
    Lesser, as insects of all sorts.
    Viviparous hairy animals, or quadrupeds, are either
    Hoofed, which are either
    Whole-footed or hoofed, as the horse and ass;
    Cloven-footed, having the hoof divided into
    Two principal parts, called bisulca, either
    Such as chew not the cud, as swine;
    Ruminant, or such as chew the cud; divided into
    Such as have perpetual and hollow horns.
    Such as have solid, branched and deciduous horns, as the deer-kind.
    Four parts, or quadrisulca, as the rhinoceros and hippopotamus.
    Clawed or digitate, having the foot divided into
      Two parts or toes, having two nails, as the camel kind;
    Many toes or claws; either
        Undivided, as the elephant;
    Divided, which have either
          Broad nails, and an human shape, as apes;
    Narrower, and more pointed nails,
    which, in respect of their teeth, are divided into such as have
    Many fore-teeth, or cutters in each jaw;
    The greater, which have
    A shorter snout and rounder head, as the cat-kind;
    A longer snout and head, as the dog-kind.
    The lesser, the vermin or weazel kind.
    Only two large and remarkable fore-teeth, all which are phytivorous, and are called the hare kind. Ray.

    Vegetables are proper enough to repair animals, as being near of the same specifick gravity with the animal juice, and as consisting of the same parts with animal substances, spirit, water, salt, oil, earth; all which are contained in the sap they derive from the earth. Arbuthnot on Aliments.

    Some of the animated substances have various organical or instrumental parts, fitted for a variety of motions from place to place, and a spring of life within themselves, as beasts, birds, fishes, and insects; these are called animals. Other animated substances are called vegetables, which have within themselves the principles of another sort of life and growth, and of various productions of leaves and fruit, such as we see in plants, herbs, and trees. Watts's Logick.

  2. By way of contempt, we say of a stupid man, that he is a stupid animal.

Sources: Arbuthnot, John (227) · Ray, John (59) · Watts, Isaac (116)

Attributes: Latin (690) · Noun Substantive (1269)

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Cite this page: Johnson, Samuel. "Animal (noun)." A Dictionary of the English Language: A Digital Edition of the 1755 Classic by Samuel Johnson. Edited by Brandi Besalke. Last modified: January 31, 2014. https://johnsonsdictionaryonline.com/animal-noun/.

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